Case 122. HIV-associated encephalopathy (34 y-o M)
         
   
Progressive deterioration of brain functions (dementia) in an AIDS patient
   
         
   
Key words : AIDS encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus
   
         
   
opportunistic infection, sexually transmitted infection
   
     
 
     
In AIDS encephalopathy, multinucleated giant cells are formed around small vessels (HE).   The multinucleated giant cells represent CD68-immunoreactive macrophages (immunostaining). Mononuclear macrophages are also seen. The macrophages express CD4, which functions as a receptor for HIV.
     
   
     
In the subventricular zone, mononuclear macrophages accumulate extensively in this case.